Course Content – BioChemistry

Course Content

Course Content 200 Level

BCH 202       Introduction to Biotechnology              3 Units

This course shall provide a broad overview of the scope, and importance of biotechnology. The course content includes the following topics: Definition and history of biotechnology. Biotechnology as an interdisciplinary subject: Global impact and current excitement/trend of biotechnology (health care, agriculture, human genome project, environment, genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics): Potentials and achievements of biotechnology in Nigeria; Prevention of misuse of biotechnology; The concept of genes and genetic engineering.

BCH 211           Structure and Chemistry of Biomolecules     3 Units    

Prerequistes: BIO 111, BIO 112, CHM 101 and CHM 102.

A study of the basic organization of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) and their monomeric units. The structural arrangement and condensation reactions to form polymers. The conformational arrangement (stereochemistry) of the monomeric units in solution. The biological functions of each biomolecules and the chemical reactions of their monomers.

BCH 212 Metabolism of Carbohydrates                           2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 211.

A study of the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in man. The anaerobic and aerobic breakdown of glycolysis. The fate of pyruvate and the energetic of glycolysis.   Hexosemono-phosphate shunt pathway, glycoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. The Krebs cycle and its significance. Regulation of these pathways and inborn errors.

BCH 213          Introduction to Cellular Biochemistry            2 Units

The course involves the cell structural and chemical composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as relates to cellular differentiation and also molecular organization. Membranes transport systems, receptors and carriers. Cell fractionation and enzyme markers for specific organelles. Endocytosis and exocytosis.

BCH 214         Metabolism of Lipids                          2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 211.

The course involves the study of the digestion and absorption of lipids in man. Degradative pathways of lipid; enzymology and energetic. The beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids, synthesis of phospholipids, cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. Regulation of these pathways and inborn errors.

BCH 216           Metabolism of Amino acids                       2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 211.  

The course involves the digestion and absorption of amino acids in mammals, metabolism of one carbon unit, metabolic fate of amino group, nitrogen excretion and the urea cycle. It also includes the overview of nitrogen metabolism, the biosynthesis of amino acids and their derivatives. The disorders of amino acid metabolism.

BCH 217       Intermediary Metabolism                              2 Units

This course involves the basic concept of metabolism, anabolism and catabolism of bio-molecules. The interrelationship of the major pathways of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

BCH218Metabolism of Nucleic acids                           2 Units

Prerequisite:BCH 211.

This course is designed to cover the degradation of nucleosides and nucleotides. The synthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides from IMP and synthesis of UTP from UMP. The reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides and savage of purines and pyrimidines. Catabolism of nucleotides:- catabolism of purine nucleotides, purine nucleotide cycle in muscle, and catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides. The regulation and inborn errors of nucleic acid metabolism.

BCH 219          Experimental Biochemistry 1                1 Unit

This course involves acid-base chemistry (titration), pH estimation and preparation of buffers. It also includes experimental tests for the identification of macromolecules in solution.

BCH 220         Experimental Biochemistry II                        1 Unit

Prerequisite: BCH 219.

This course is to expose the students to basic tools in biochemical techniques and measurement; Photometry – preparation of standard curves; spectrophotometry and use for quantitative estimation of biological molecules.

BCH 222        Introductory Physiology                                   3 Units

The course involves the study of blood clotting and regulation of blood coagulation. Metabolism of erythrocytes, bile pigments, iron metabolism and erythrocytes abnormalities. Electrolytes and acid-base balance: The Kidney – Fluid compartments of the body, specialized body fluids, control of the behavior of extracellular fluid, control of the pH of body fluids, aspect of renal function, nature and composition of the urine, abnormal constitutents of urine, urinary lithiasis and endocrine function of the kidney.

Biochemistry of the Endocrine system – Hormones and mechanism of hormone action, measurement of hormones, feedback regulation, biosynthesis, storage, secretion and circulation in blood, degradation and peripheral transformation, receptors, and disordered endocrine function.

BCH 224        Introduction to Physical Biochemistry            2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 211.

The course involves the characteristic and properties of water, ionization and also dissociation. It also involves thermodynamic solution, hydrodynamics, equilibria, buffer system, solubility, osmosis, diffusion, dialysis, permeability, polarity and molecular bond formation. The biophysical properties of macromolecules in solution.

Course Content 300 Level

BCH 305Enzymology3 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 211

The course involves the study of the general nature of enzymes, nomenclatureand classification of enzymes, isolation and purification of enzymes. It also involves measurement of enzyme activity, factors which affect enzyme activity, enzyme active sites, introduction to enzyme kinetics and evaluation of kinetic parameters and constants.

BCH 307Bioenergetics2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 224

This course studies high energy compounds; types and characteristics. The nature of chemical/ electrochemical potentials including electrochemistry and redox reaction. It also studies electron transport system, oxidative phosphorylation and regulation of ATP production. Concepts of chemical thermodynamics; oxidations and reductions.

BCH 309 Experimental Biochemistry III                     2 Units

Prerequisites: BCH 219, BCH 220.

The course shall entail the specific experiments on the various biochemical techniques taught in BCH 315- centrifugation, electrophoresis, spectrophotometry and chromatography.

BCH 311          Immunochemistry                               2 Units

This course shall involve detailed study of the basic immunobiology, structure and functions of antigens, antibodies and haptens. It also entails the comprehensive classification and structural motifs of immunoglobulins, the antibody binding sites and structure-function relationship of antibodies. The study of complement system and fixation, concept of serology, clinical immunology, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity and graft rejection. Immune tolerance factors affecting immune response. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies; production, detection and uses of monoclonal antibodies.

BCH 312             Biosynthesis of Macromolecules                                                                          3 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 212, BCH 214,BCH 216,BCH 218

This course involves the study of the synthesis of macromolecules (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) from their simple precursors. Regulation of biosynthetic pathways and inborn errors.

BCH 313            Membrane Biochemistry                           2 Units

Prerequisites: BCH 211

A study of the composition of biological membranes and their contribution to the functions of the membrane. It will examine membrane asymmetry and movements, and the concept of membrane receptor functions. Antigenicity of membrane components, membrane transport processes and neurotransmission.

BCH 314             Plant Biochemistry                                2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 216, BCH 218

The course includes the study of the structure and function of plant cell and cell organelles, photosynthesis (dark and light reactions), alkaloid, flavonoids, plant hormone and its functions, lignin formation, biosynthesis of carotenoid pigments, amino acids, pyrimidines, purines and nucleosides in plants. It also includes metabolism of auxins, gibberellins and cytokines, the structure and functions of the synthetic growth regulators and herbicides.

BCH 315       Techniques in Biomedical Research                           2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 219, BCH 220

This course involves the study of the techniques employed in biomedical analysis and research. Emphasis shall be on the principles and procedures of centrifugation, spectrophotometry, chromatography, electrophoresis, manometry, histochemical techniques, immunological assays, and PCR. It also includes animal models for drug or biological evaluation and in-vitro assays.

BCH  316          Introduction to Forensic Science                      2 Units

The course involves the historical and legal background of forensic science, fundamental scientific principles in forensic science, evidence types and crime scene searching methodology. It also involves investigative procedures at crime scenes, blood specimen analysis, DNA analysis, body fluid identification and clinical indicators of death/murder scene investigation.

BCH 317              Introductory Molecular Biology                 2 Units

The course involves a study of the structure and function of genetic material in relation to genetic expression and control in prokaryotes and eukaryotes including cellular ultrastructure: Chromosome structure and Gene expression.

BCH 318 Advanced   Nutritional Biochemistry                     2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 323

The course involves study of food enzymes, lipid oxidation in foods and biological systems and genetically modified food. It also includes general principles of food toxicity with emphasis on toxic constituents in plants, animal, marine and fungal origin, contaminants and food processing induced toxins and biochemical changes in foods during processing. The metabolism and functions of vitamins and minerals, risk characterization and laws and regulation of food safety.

BCH 320             Biochemical Genetics                     2 Units

Prerequisites: BCH  317

A more comprehensive study of the pathway of biological information transfer processes comprising detailed analysis of replication, transcription and translation. Mechanism of infection by virus. It also includes recombinant-DNA and gene cloning, extra-chromosomal factors, plasmids and episomes.

BCH 322             Tissue Biochemistry               2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 213.

The course involves intracellular organization, structures and functions of specialized tissues: liver, brain, kidney, heart and diseases associated with these tissues, and Muscles. It also includes functional membrane potential and ion transport, neurotransmitters:- biogenic amines (synthesis and breakdown), body fluids: composition and function, biochemistry of vision, adipose and reproductive tissues, detoxification and excretion in tissues.

 BCH 323              Food/Nutritional Biochemistry                  2 Units

This course involves the study of body composition, nutrients required by man and factors affecting these requirements. It also involves foodstuff and their energy values,  protein quality, food preservation and processing, food habits and intakes, consequences of excess and inadequate calorie intake and protein energy malnutrition.

BCH  399             Industrial Attachment                   6 Units

Students shall be attached to some industrial organizations for 6 months.

Course Content 400 Level

BCH  401         Chemistry of Biological Polymers                    3 Units

Prerequisites: BCH 211, BCH 313

This course involves a comprehensive study of the structure and physico-chemical properties in solution of biological polymers. It examines the structure and properties of amino acids, protein conformation and methods of analysis. Structure-function relationship of proteins. It involves review of nucleic acid structure, nucleoproteins and nucleic acid isolation, properties and conformation, polynucleotide sequencing. It also studies polysaccharide and lipid structures, properties and analysis, structural features of proteoglycans, peptidoglycans, lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharides, membrane structure and integrity.

BCH 402            Special Topics in Enzymology             2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 305.

The course involves the study of enzyme structure and properties, and enzyme assemblages. It also includes enzyme kinetics (steady state kinetics), principles of catalysis, multienzyme systems and enzyme inhibition (types and kinetics). Regulation of enzyme activity; chemical modification of enzyme activity and  enzyme reaction mechanism.

BCH  403       Advance Intermediary Metabolism & Regulation.            3 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 212, BCH 214, BCH 216, BCH 218

This course entails advanced studies in degradation, synthesis and regulatory processes involved in the metabolism carbohydrate, proteins, lipids and nucleic acid.

BCH 405        Experimental Biochemistry IV                     2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 309

This course is designed to further expose students to collect information, analyze raw biochemical data, synthesize and take logical decisions using various statistical parameters. It will also make the students to function as Biochemist in various health field and related areas. More importantly, it will encourage students to take up analytical and procedural roles in industries and agro-allied companies. This course will eventually venture the students into the technicality involved in the interpretation of diagrams and figures and discussion of results.

BCH  406         Biochemical Reasoning                        1 Unit

Evaluation and design of experimental biochemistry from available information and data analysis, interpretation and inference-drawing from biochemical research data.

BCH 407             Industrial and Microbial Biotechnology         2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 202.

The course involves the importance of isolation, characterization, exploitation and commercialization of microorganisms. It also includes efficiency of fermentation with the use of fermentors (bioreactors), downstream processing and scale-ups in industry. Biosynthetic pathways and regulatory control of microorganisms for production of metabolites and microbial biomass.

BCH 411              Seminar and Term Paper                            2 Units

This course is to cover reading assignments to students which are expected to be completed during 3-6 hours library studies and later presented as short seminars. One lecture weekly on growth and development of biochemistry and major advancements  in biochemical research.

 BCH415         Introduction to Bioinformatics                       2 Unit

The course is designed to accustom students with the new field of biotechnology called genomics and how it is related to the total protein components of a living organism called proteomics and how the translation of billion of characters of DNA sequences is used for making meaningful biological information. The process of accessing this biological information through computational and statistical analysis is called bioinformatics. The course is also designed to convey latest information on human genome projects and some microorganisms and their application in the remedy of hereditary diseases and infections, gene database and gene mapping. The course will be  concluded with the process of gene and protein structural-function prediction using gene banking.

BCH 416              Clinical Biochemistry                     2 Units

Prerequisite: BCH 222

The course is designed to acquaint students with theoretical biochemical basis of laboratory test of clinical significance in diagnosis and management of diseases, units and abbreviations used in clinical chemistry and pathology. It also involves interpretation of results and quality control, manual and automation in clinical laboratory, chemical components of biological fluids, common acute and chronic ailments associated with man, enzyme markers for liver function test, renal function test, cardiac and muscle infarctions, analysis of cerebrospinal fluids, body electrolytes, blood group substance and abnormal heamoglobins.

BCH 417             Bioinorganic Chemistry               2 Units

Prerequisites:       CHM 201, CHM 203.

A study of the relationships between the physicochemical properties and biological functions of inorganic ions. It also entails ligand complexes and their biochemical significance, electrolyte metabolism, nitrogen fixation and sulphur cycle in nature.

BCH 418       Xenobiotic Biochemistry                2 Units

The course involves  classification of xenobiotics, mechanisms of regulation and effects of xenobiotics. Metabolism of xenobiotics: monooxygenases, conjugating enzymes, modes of action of toxicants: receptor-mediated mechanisms, metabolic activation of xenobitics, oxidative stress, inhibition of mitochondrial functions, neurotoxicity, modulation of cytokinetics, disruption of metabolism of endogeneous compounds. Chemical carcinogenesis and chemoprotective compounds.

BCH 420               Industrial Biochemistry                     2 Units

A short review of microbial physiology and genetics. A review of general metabolic pathways and application in industrial processes. Continuous culture methods, principles and applications. The chemostat and its application in industrial fermentations. Fermentations – alcoholic, amino acid antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Primary and secondary metabolism – amino acids, taste enhancers, vitamins, toxin etc. MTheme Editorethods for screening and selecting microorganisms of industrial importance. Induction of mutation in micro-organisms and plants, strain selection/development and enhancement. Gene dosage and its application in industrial processes.

BCH 425      Biochemistry of viruses and parasite               2 Units

The course involves the study of the metabolism of bio-molecules in parasites, host/parasite interactions and parasite nutrient needs. Biochemical mechanisms of drug action against parasites. It also includes defense mechanisms in parasitism, bio-membranes of parasites, structural properties of different classes of viruses, viral multiplication mechanisms, control of viral replication and interferon.

BCH 499: Research Project                                  6 Units

The course shall emphasize on the approaches to research investigation/problems where students will be assigned with a research project under the supervision of an academic staff.